Research Insights About Covid-19

We attempt to provide selected highlights in recent research findings

Last Update on 1 December 2020

A. Medicine and Health 

May 2020

May 30, 2020 (J of American Academy of Dermatology)

Pernio-like skin lesions associated with COVID-19: A case series of 318 patients from 8 countries

Esther E. Freeman, Devon E. McMahon, Jules B. Lipoff et al.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.109

An international dermatology registry was circulated to health care providers worldwide through the American Academy of Dermatology, International League of Dermatologic Societies, and other organizations. The authors documented 505 patients with dermatologic manifestations associated with COVID-19, including 318 (63%) with pernio-like lesions. Patients with pernio-like lesions were generally young and healthy, with relatively mild COVID-19. The authors conclude that pernio-like skin changes of the feet and hands, without another explanation, may suggest COVID-19 infection and should prompt confirmatory testing.

 

May 30, 2020 (European Radiology)

CT in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review of chest CT findings in 4410 adult patients

Ojha, V., Mani, A., Pandey, N.N. et al. 

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06975-7

The authors performed a systematic review to evaluate the key imaging manifestations of COVID-19 on chest CT in adult patients. They included 45 studies comprising 4410 patients. This review describes the imaging features for diagnosis, stratification, and follow-up of COVID-19 patients. The most common CT manifestations are bilateral, peripheral/subpleural, posterior GGOs with or without consolidations with a lower lobe predominance.

 

May 29, 2020 (JAMA Neurology)

Neuropathogenesis and Neurologic Manifestations of the Coronaviruses in the Age of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Review

Adeel S. Zubair, Lindsay S. McAlpine, Tova Gardin et al.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2065

This narrative review identifies potential tissue targets and routes of entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into the central nervous system and reported neurological complications of coronavirus disease 2019.

 

May 29, 2020 (Science)

The Search for a COVID-19 Animal Model

Seema S. Lakdawala, Vineet D. Menachery

https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6141

Translating data from a single animal model to the varied disease outcomes in humans is not only challenging, but potentially misleading. Studies examining the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral drugs traditionally use models of severe disease, which may not mimic the common pathology in the majority of COVID-19 patients and could limit understanding of other important questions, including infection dynamics and transmission. Here, the authors compare currently available animal models for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in search for the best animal model to study COVID-19.

 

May 28, 2020 (Experimental Biology and Medicine)

The amount of cytokine-release defines different shades of Sars-Cov2 infection

S Bindolli, M Felicetti, P Sfriso et al.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370220928964

This minireview contributes to providing a point of view regarding the immunological mechanisms beyond COVID-19 infection. Base on current evidence, the authors suggest to classify patients into three main clinical phenotypes according to the amount and pattern of cytokines released during the infection. By evaluating the degree of immunological activation provoked by SARS-CoV2, this article contributes in understanding better how to choose the correct clinical approach with immuno-modulatory therapies which, in turn, may help in curbing the hyper-inflammatory condition of patients affected.

 

May 28, 2020 (The Lancet Oncology)

Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study

Nicole M Kuderer, Toni K Choueiri, Dimpy P Shah et al.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31187-9

The authors characterise the outcomes of a cohort of 928 patients with cancer and COVID-19 and identify potential prognostic factors for mortality and severe illness.

 

May 28, 2020 (European Radiology)

Any unique image biomarkers associated with COVID-19?

Pu, J., Leader, J., Bandos, A. et al. 

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06956-w

The authors compared CT scans of COVID-19 and Non-COVID19 community acquired pneumonia patients to define the uniqueness of chest CT infiltrative features associated with COVID-19 image characteristics as potential diagnostic biomarkers. They found that unique image features or patterns may not exist for reliably distinguishing all COVID-19 from CAP; however, there may be imaging markers that can identify a sizeable subset of non-COVID-19 cases.

 

 

May 27, 2020 (Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal)

N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Basics, Types, and Shortage Solutions

Srinivasan S, Peh WCG

http://www.morthoj.org/2020/v14n2/N95-covid-19.pdf

There is much global concern about protective measures for health care professionals, particularly those performing surgery or other procedures with close patient contact during this COVID-19 pandemic. Here the authors discuss N95 respirators and the additional role of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) is also discussed.

May 27, 2020 (Cell)

SARS-CoV-2 Reverse Genetics Reveals a Variable Infection Gradient in the Respiratory Tract

Yixuan J. Hou, Kenichi Okuda, Caitlin E. Edwards et al.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.042

The authors utilized a reverse genetics system to generate a GFP reporter virus to explore SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. The found that the reagents used provide a foundation for investigations into virus-host interactions in protective immunity, host susceptibility, and virus pathogenesis.

May 27, 2020 (Science)

Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2

Kimberly A. Prather, Chia C Wang, Robert T. Schooley

https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6197

The authors discuss the role of aerosol spread of the SARS-CoV2 virus and emphasise the need for masks to combat asymptomatic spread in aerosols and droplets.

 

May 27, 2020 (JAMA Internal Medicine)

Opening Hospitals to More Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic—Making It Safe and Making It Feel Safe

David A. Asch

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2626

This essay details the importance in the COVID-19 era of making the changes needed to ensure that hospitals are safe for all patients who want to use them and, as importantly, to ensure that the patients feel that they are safe.

 

May 27, 2020 (JAMA)

Comparison of Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Asymptomatic vs Symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China

Rongrong Yang, Xien Gui, Yong Xiong

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10182

This case series examines clinical characteristics of patients with asymptomatic vs symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China.

 

May 27, 2020 (JAMA Psychiatry)

Psychiatry in Times of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: An Imperative for Psychiatrists to Act Now

Luykx JJ, Vinkers CH, Tijdink JK.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1225

This Viewpoint discusses how psychiatrists can contribute to diminish the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

 

May 27, 2020 (NEJM)

Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19

Jason D. Goldman, David C.B. Lye,David S. Hui, Kristen M. Marks et al.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2015301

The authors conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. 397 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous remdesivir for either 5 days or 10 days. All patients received 200 mg of remdesivir on day 1 and 100 mg once daily on subsequent days. In patients with severe Covid-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation, the trial did not show a significant difference between a 5-day course and a 10-day course of remdesivir. With no placebo control, however, the magnitude of benefit cannot be determined. 

May 26, 2020 (Clinica Chimica Acta)

COVID-19: Transmission, prevention, and potential therapeutic opportunities

Melika Lotfi, Michael R. Hamblin, Nima Rezaei

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.05.044

The authors review current evidence and present current therapeutic options, preventive methods and transmission routes of COVID-19 

May 26, 2020 (United European Gastroenterology Journal)

Liver Injury in COVID-19: The Current Evidence

Saleh A Alqahtani, Jorn M Schattenberg

https://doi.org/10.1177/2050640620924157

This review summarizes current evidence related to hepatobiliary complications in COVID-19, provides an overview of the available case series and critically elucidates the proposed mechanisms and provides recommendations for clinicians.

 

May 26, 2020 (Otolaryngology– Head and Neck Surgery)

Inappropriate Nasopharyngeal Sampling for SARS-CoV-2 Detection Is a Relevant Cause of False-Negative Reports

Antonio Piras, Davide Rizzo, Sergio Uzzau et al.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0194599820931793

The authors describe 4 symptomatic patients with negative RT-PCR results at the first nasopharyngeal swab, which became positive when collected a few hours later by an otolaryngologist, suggesting that inadequate nasopharyngeal sampling performed by untrained operators in the presence of nasal obstruction can be a relevant case of false-negative findings at RT-PCR, with a clear negative impact on the efforts to contain the current outbreak.

 

May 22, 2020 (Public Health)

Overview of rapid mitigating strategies in Singapore during the COVID-19 pandemic

W.C. Lee, C. Y. Ong

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.05.015

This article describes the preparations and rapid mitigation strategies in addressing the rocketing number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Singapore.  The government had constructed a three-pronged approach which includes travel, healthcare and community measures to curb the spread of COVID-19.

 

May 22, 2020 (JAMA)

Translating Science on COVID-19 to Improve Clinical Care and Support the Public Health Response

Carlos del Rio, Preeti Malani

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.9252

The authors summarize the flood of communication about the most important aspects of the COVID-19-pandemic published in the last five months. 

May 22, 2020 (The Lancet)

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial

 Feng-Cai Zhu,  Yu-Hua Li,  Xu-Hua Guan, et al

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31208-3
The authors assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vectored COVID-19 vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain. Their findings show that the Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine is tolerable and immunogenic at 28 days post-vaccination, suggesting that this vaccine warrants further investigation.

May 22, 2020 (JAMA)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Test Results After Clinical Recovery and Hospital Discharge Among Patients in China

Jinru Wu, Xinyi Liu, Jianjun Liu, Han Liao, Sixuan Long, Ning Zhou, Pa Wu

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.9759

This cross-sectional study used reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction tests to assess potential viral shedding among patients who previously had been diagnosed with and had clinically recovered from coronavirus disease 2019.

May 22, 2020 (JAMA)

Nursing Home Care in Crisis in the Wake of COVID-19

David C. Grabowski, Vincent Mor

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8524

This Viewpoint discusses the long-standing deficiencies in nursing home financing and organization made worse by the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and proposes ways to improve testing and personal protective equipment availability, and payment reforms to incentivize quality care for residents and decrease emergency department and hospital use.


 

May 22, 2020 (Science)

Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period

Stephen M. Kissler, Christine Tedijanto, Edward Goldstein, Yonatan H. Grad, Marc Lipsitch

https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb5793

Kissler et al. used existing data to build a deterministic model of multiyear interactions between existing coronaviruses, with a focus on the United States, and used this to project the potential epidemic dynamics and pressures on critical care capacity over the next 5 years. The long-term dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 strongly depends on immune responses and immune cross-reactions between the coronaviruses, as well as the timing of introduction of the new virus into a population. One scenario is that a resurgence in SARS-CoV-2 could occur as far into the future as 2025.

 

May 22, 2020 (The Lancet)

Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis

Prof Mandeep R Mehra, Sapan S Desai, Prof Frank Ruschitzka, Amit N Patel

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6

The authors performed a multinational registry analysis of the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19. The registry comprised data from 671 hospitals in six continents. They were unable to confirm a benefit of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide, on in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19. Each of these drug regimens was associated with decreased in-hospital survival and an increased frequency of ventricular arrhythmias when used for treatment of COVID-19.

 

May 22, 2020 (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Predicting infectious SARS-CoV-2 from diagnostic samples 

Jared Bullard, Kerry Dust, Duane Funk, James E Strong, David Alexander et al.

https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa638

An RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV2 detects RNA but not infectious virus, thus its ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited. Infectivity is a critical determinant in informing public health guidelines/interventions. Here, the authors perform a retrospective cross-sectional study and took SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed positive samples and determined their ability to infect Vero cell lines. They found that cell infectivity was only observed for samples with PCR Cycle time < 24 and from patients with < 8 days from symptom onset.

 

May 21, 2020 (Infection)

A simple algorithm helps early identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection patients with severe progression tendency

Qiang Li, Jianliang Zhang, Yun Ling et al.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01446-z

The authors performed univariable and multivariable analysis to identify the independent predictors of COVID-19 progression. The prediction model was established in a retrospective training set of 322 COVID-19 patients and was re- evaluated in a prospective validation set of 317 COVID-19 patients. They found that The age-LDH-CD4 model is a simple algorithm for early identifying patients with severe progression tendency following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and warrants further validation.

 

May 21, 2020 (JAMA)

Postmortem Examination of Patients With COVID-19

Tina Schaller, Klaus Hirschbühl, Katrin Burkhardt, Georg Braun, Martin Trepel, Bruno Märkl, Rainer Claus

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8907

This case series describes autopsy findings in 10 patients with proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who died at a university medical center in Germany. They found that acute and organizing diffuse alveolar damage and SARS-CoV-2 persistence in the respiratory tract were the predominant histopathologic findings and constituted the leading cause of death in patients with and without invasive ventilation.

May 21, 2020 (Int J of Social Psychiatry)

Impact of Social Distancing on Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Urgent Discussion

Matias Carvalho Aguiar Melo, Douglas de Sousa Soares

https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020927047

In this letter to the editor, the authors discuss the psychological impact of social distancing and emphasise the urgent need to conduct more researches to clarify the effect of social distancing in short- and long-term mental health.

 

May 20, 2020 (Nature Communications)

Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine candidate for COVID-19

Smith, T.R.F., Patel, A., Ramos, S. et al.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16505-0

In this paper, the authors discuss their findings after generating a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate targeting SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The engineered construct, INO-4800, results in robust expression of the S protein in vitro. Following immunization of mice and guinea pigs with INO-4800, they measured antigen-specific T cell responses, functional antibodies which neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 infection and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and biodistribution of SARS-CoV-2 targeting antibodies to the lungs. This preliminary dataset identifies INO-4800 as a potential COVID-19 vaccine candidate, supporting further translational study.

 

May 20, 2020 (Science)

DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques

Jingyou Yu, Lisa H. Tostanoski, Lauren Peter et al.

https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6284

The authors developed a series of DNA vaccine candidates expressing different forms of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein and evaluated them in 35 rhesus macaques.  They found that vaccinated animals developed humoral and cellular immune responses, including neutralizing antibody titers comparable to those found in convalescent humans and macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. Following vaccination, all animals were challenged with SARS-CoV-2, and the authors found reductions in median viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal mucosa samples from these macaques, as compared with sham controls. Vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protective efficacy, suggesting an immune correlate of protection. These data demonstrate vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates.

 

May 20, 2020 (NEJM)

Pandemic as Teacher — Forcing Clinicians to Inhabit the Experience of Serious Illness

Jane deLima Thomas

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2015024
The author shares her experience and challenges as a palliative care physician in preparing for the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

May 20, 2020 (JAMA)

Nasal Gene Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Children and Adults

Supinda Bunyavanich, Anh Do, Alfin Vicencio

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8707

The authors conducted a retrospective examination of nasal epithelium collected from individuals aged 4 to 60 years encountered within the Mount Sinai Health System, New York, during 2015-2018. They investigated ACE2 gene expression in the nasal epithelium of these children and adult samples and found that there is age-dependent expression of ACE2 in nasal epithelium, possibly explaining why COVID-19 is less prevalent in children.

 

May 20, 2020 (JAMA)

Olfactory Dysfunction in COVID-19: Diagnosis and management

Katherine Lisa Whitcroft, Thomas Hummel
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8391

This JAMA Insights Clinical Update discusses the presumed mechanism of COVID-19–related olfactory dysfunction and proposes assessment and management strategies, including olfactory training and adjuvant medication treatments.

 

May 20, 2020 (JAMA)

Assessment of Proficiency of N95 Mask Donning Among the General Public in Singapore

Wesley Yeung, Kennedy Ng, J. M. Nigel Fong, Judy Sng, Bee Choo Tai, Sin Eng Chia

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.9670

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the proficiency of members of the Singapore public in wearing N95 masks. Participants were provided with the same model of masks and an instruction sheet. Interviewers administered a visual mask fit (VMF) test and a user seal check following the manufacturer’s instructions. They found that there was a low N95 VMF pass rate amongst participants.

 

May 20, 2020 (JAMA)

How Academic Health Systems Can Move Forward Once COVID-19 Wanes

Steven D. Shapiro, Paul B. Rothman

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8002

This Viewpoint discusses the role academic health systems can play in response to public health deficiencies identified in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including developing early warning systems to identify future outbreaks, addressing community mental health needs more broadly, and working to reduce structural health inequities.

 

May 19, 2020 (NEJM)

The COVID-19 Pandemic and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Matthew D. Solomon, Edward J. McNulty, Jamal S. Rana et al.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2015630

During the Covid-19 pandemic, reports have suggested a decrease in the number of patients presenting to hospitals because of emergency conditions such as acute myocardial infarction. The authors examined this issue using data from a large integrated health care delivery system with 21 medical centers and 255 clinics that provides comprehensive care for more than 4.4 million persons throughout Northern California. They found that the incidence of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction declined after March 4, 2020, during the Covid-19 pandemic, more than would be expected on the basis of typical seasonal variation alone. 

 

May 18, 2020 (EMJ)

The COVID-19 Conundrum and Cancer - Making Perfect Sense of Imperfect Data

Utkarsh Acharya

https://doi.org/10.33590/emj/200518

The author reviews current available evidence of COVID-19 and cancer. He discusses the epidemiological data, COVID-19 and cancer therapies and also identifies current gaps in knowledge with regards to COVID-19 and cancer.

 

May 18, 2020 (JAMA)

Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV)

An Unprecedented Partnership for Unprecedented Times

Francis S. Collins, Paul Stoffels

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8920

In this viewpoint, the authors describe a partnership involving all sectors of society to work together to address COVID-19.

 

May 18, 2020 (Medscape)

A Quick Summary of the COVID-19 Literature So Far

Eric A. Meyerowitz, Aaron G. Richterman

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/930588

In this update, the authors summarise key takeaways regarding COVID-19 covering April 23 to May 5, during which more than 3000 COVID- related papers were published on PubMed and another 766 were released in preprint form. In succinct tables, they summarise the major RCTs on COVID-19 therapeutics and discuss additional therapeutic data from press releases. They also summarise key transmission findings and discuss important learning points on COVID-19.

 

May 18, 2020 (Science Advances)

Evidence for host-dependent RNA editing in the transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2

Salvatore Di Giorgio, Filippo Martignano, Maria Gabriella Torcia, Giorgio Mattiuz, Silvestro G. Conticello

https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb5813

The authors analyze RNA sequences from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids derived from COVID-19 infected patients. They identify nucleotide changes that may be signatures of RNA editing: Adenosine-to-Inosine changes from ADAR deaminases and Cytosine-to-Uracil changes from APOBEC ones. Their results suggest that both APOBECs and ADARs are involved in Coronavirus genome editing, a process that may shape the fate of both virus and patient.

 

May 18, 2020 (Nature)

Cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 by a human monoclonal SARS-CoV antibody

Pinto, D., Park, Y., Beltramello, M. et al.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2349-y

Vaccine and therapeutic discovery efforts are paramount to curb the pandemic spread of this SARS-CoV2 virus. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein promotes entry into host cells and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Here the authors describe multiple monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 S identified from memory B cells of an individual who was infected with SARS-CoV in 2003. They explain the potential of using S309- and S309-containing antibody cocktails for prophylaxis in individuals at high risk of exposure or as a post-exposure therapy to limit or treat severe disease.

 

May 15, 2020 (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep)

High SARS-CoV-2 Attack Rate Following Exposure at a Choir Practice — Skagit County, Washington, March 2020

Hamner L, Dubbel P, Capron I, et al. 

http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6919e6

Superspreading events involving SARS-CoV2 have been reported. The authors describe a cluster of infections and their outcomes which occurred after choir practice attended by 61 persons. Citing this event, they emphasise on the importance of physical distancing, including avoiding gathering in large groups, to control spread of COVID-19. Additionally, enhancing community awareness can encourage symptomatic persons and contacts of ill persons to isolate or self-quarantine to prevent ongoing transmission.

May 15, 2020 (JAMA)

Respiratory Parameters in Patients With COVID-19 After Using Noninvasive Ventilation in the Prone Position Outside the Intensive Care Unit

Chiara Sartini, Moreno Tresoldi, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Tettamanti, Francesco Carcò, Giovanni Landoni, Alberto Zangrillo

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.7861

This study, conducted in a single centre in Italy, measured respiratory parameters of 15 non-ICU patients before, during, and after receiving noninvasive ventilation in the prone position and found that it was feasible to do so.

 

May 14, 2020 (Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine)

The coronavirus pandemic: can we handle such epidemics better?

Peter C Gøtzsche

https://doi.org/10.1177/0141076820924587

In this commentary, the author summaries various SARS-CoV2 related publications in the form of a question and answer format and provides a thorough insight on what has happened so far, and where we may be heading.

May 13, 2020 (JAMA)

SARS-CoV-2 Rates in BCG Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Young Adults

Uri Hamiel, Eran Kozer, Ilan Youngster

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8189

In this study, the authors collected data on COVID-19 patients from Israel’s National Central Bureau of Statistics. They compared infection rates and proportions with severe COVID-19 disease in 2 similar populations with differing BCG status: individuals born during the 3 years before and 3 years after cessation of the universal BCG vaccine program. They found that BCG vaccination in childhood does not have a protective effect against COVID-19 in adulthood.

 

May 13, 2020 (Science)

Estimating the burden of SARS-CoV-2 in France

Henrik Salje, Cécile Tran Kiem, Noémie Lefrancq, Noémie Courtejoie, Paolo Bosetti et al.

https://doi.org//10.1126/science.abc3517

Despite more than 27,000 confirmed deaths from COVID-19 in France, only about 4.4% of people have been infected. The percentage is still far below the required level of above 50%

 

May 13, 2020 (JAMA Cardiology)

A Game Plan for the Resumption of Sport and Exercise After Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection

Dermot Phelan, Jonathan H. Kim, Eugene H. Chung

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2136

Significant cardiac morbidity has been observed among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Evidenced-based recommendations for return-to-play guidelines are currently limited. Here, the authors provide recommendations that are exclusive to cardiovascular considerations and illustrate with an algorithm.

 

May 13, 2020 (JAMA Pediatrics)

School Closure During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

An Effective Intervention at the Global Level?

Susanna Esposito, Nicola Principi

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1892

This Viewpoint discusses the effectiveness of school closure as a preventive measure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

 

May 13, 2020 (JAMA)

Global Effort to Collect Data on Ventilated Patients With COVID-19

Rita Rubin

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8341

This Medical News feature describes an international effort to compile data about ventilated patients with COVID-19.

May 12, 2020 (Int J of Inf Dis)

A dynamic modeling tool for estimating healthcare demand from the COVID19 epidemic and evaluating population-wide interventions

Gabriel Rainisch, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Gerardo Chowell

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.043

The authors developed a tool to estimate healthcare demand stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. They applied this model to three different regions in Chile to illustrate its use and describe their findings in this article. This tool is able to help local authorities examine the impacts of intervention strategies.

May 12, 2020 (Prehospital and Disaster Medicine)

Hospital Emergency Management of Emerging Infectious Disease using Instant Communication Technology

Lin, C., Hsieh, C., & Chi, C. 

https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X20000618

In this letter to the editor, the authors share three considerations related to using innovative applications to manage the threat of emerging infectious disease.

May 12, 2020 (European Radiology)

Comparison of chest CT findings between COVID-19 pneumonia and other types of viral pneumonia: a two-center retrospective study

Xiao Li, Xu Fang, Yun Bian, Jianping Lu

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06925-3\

In this retrospective review, High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest was performed on 154 patients with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and compared with 100 patients with other types of viral pneumonia from two hospitals. The authors found that a peripheral distribution, a lesion range > 10 cm, involvement of 5 lobes, presence of hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement, and no pleural effusion were significantly associated with COVID-19.

 

May 12, 2020 (JAMA)

Management of Critically Ill Adults With COVID-19

Jason T. Poston, Bhakti K. Patel, Andrew M. Davis

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4914

This JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis summarizes the 2020 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines on the treatment of critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

 

May 12, 2020 (The Lancet)

Retinal findings in patients with COVID-19

Paula M Marinho, Allexya A A Marcos, Andre C Romano, Heloisa Nascimento, Rubens Belfort Jr

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31014-X

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is useful for demonstrating subclinical retinal changes in systemic conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as many viral infections. The authors used OCT to evaluate 12 adult patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and describe their findings.

 

May 12, 2020 (JAMA Internal Medicine)

Development and Validation of a Clinical Risk Score to Predict the Occurrence of Critical Illness in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19

Wenhua Liang, Hengrui Liang, Limin Ou, Binfeng Chen, Ailan Chen, Caichen Li, Yimin Li, Weijie Guan, Ling Sang, Jiatao Lu, Yuanda Xu, Guoqiang Chen, Haiyan Guo, Jun Guo, Zisheng Chen, Yi Zhao, Shiyue Li, Nuofu Zhang, Nanshan Zhong, Jianxing He for the China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2033

This cohort study examines the characteristics of patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 will need admission to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or will die, and develops a COVID-19 risk score to predict outcomes.

 

May 12, 2020 (The Lancet)

Early estimates of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and child mortality in low-income and middle-income countries: a modelling study

Timothy Roberton, Emily D Carter, Victoria B Chou, Angela R Stegmuller, Bianca D Jackson, Yvonne Tam et al.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30229-1

In this study, the authors estimate the additional maternal and under-5 child deaths resulting from the potential disruption of health systems and decreased access to food due to the COVID-19 pandemic. They modelled three different scenarios and used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate the additional maternal and under-5 child deaths under each scenario, in low and middle-income countries.

May 11, 2020 (Life Sciences)

A systematic review on use of aminoquinolines for the therapeutic management of COVID-19: Efficacy, safety and clinical trials

Vaishali M. Patil, Shipra Singhal, Neeraj Masand

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117775

This review elaborates the mechanism of action, safety (side effects, adverse effects, toxicity) and details of clinical trials for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to benefit the clinicians, medicinal chemists,  and pharmacologists actively involved in controlling the pandemic and to provide therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 infection.

May 11, 2020 (Infection)

COVID-19 in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a case series of 33 patients

Georg Harter, Christoph D. Spinner, Julia Roider et al.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01438-z

This case series of 33 PLWH patients with COVID-19 reveals symptoms and outcome in this special population. A retrospective analysis of anonymized data was carried out including age, gender, HIV-associated parameters, symptoms, and outcome. This preliminary case series does not support excess morbidity and mortality among symptomatic COVID-19 PLWH and with viral suppression on ART. SARS-CoV-2 infections may occur during boosted darunavir-based and/or on tenofovir-containing ART.