Research Insights About Covid-19

We attempt to provide selected highlights in recent research findings

Last Update on 25 June 2020

C. Social Sciences, Humanities and Public Policy

October 2020

Oct 2020 (Computers in Human Behavior)

COVID-19 and digital inequalities: Reciprocal impacts and mitigation strategies

Elisabeth Beaunoyer, Sophie Dupéré, Matthieu J.Guitton

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563220301771

The author studied how the COVID-19 pandemic is increasing digital inequalities.

Digital inequalities are increasing the vulnerability to the COVID-19 virus and to the consequences of the crisis. They proposed that the impact of digital inequalities on COVID-19 vulnerability should be embedded in the governmental responses. Moreover, mitigation strategies targeting the individuals and the messages are proposed.

September 2020

Sep 2020  (Environmental Research)

Understanding COVID-19 diffusion requires an interdisciplinary, multi-dimensional approach

Elza Bontempi, SergioVergalli, Flaminio Squazzoni

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393512030709X

The authors focus on certain limitations of current research about environmental-to-human COVID-19 transmission. They caution against simplistic analyses and show the benefit of an adopting an interdisciplinary, multi-dimensional approach to understanding the geographical diversity of contagion diffusion patterns.

They propose this should not only involve the medical and natural sciences, but also engineering, political, economic, social, and demographic disciplines. Thy suggest that COVID-19 can be the real accelerator towards a synthetic, trans-disciplinary science which could also help better prepare for other systemic shocks such as climate change that will require a coordinated, rapid response.

 

September 2020  (Safety Science)

Estimating and projecting air passenger traffic during the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak and its socio-economic impact

Stefano MariaIacus, Fabrizio Natale, Carlos Santamaria et al

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925753520301880

This paper presents forecasts of air traffic for more than 222,557 routes around the world, concerning 3,909 origin airports and 3,897 destination airports and involving 234 countries using historic data sets. These forecasts are then discounted, through different scenarios, for the COVIV-19 related flight ban from January 2020. The scenarios are based on both observed routes and flights cancellation using a mix of flight tracking data and on-line booking data, as well as hypotheses based on previous pandemic experience that affected the aviation sector. The authors then try to calculate the socio-economic impact measured in terms of loss of GDP due to up to 30 million potential job losses in the aviation and related sectors. In 2020 up to 1.67% of world GDP could be lost due to reduction in aviation. The authors note a number of caveats related to their scenarios and methodological assumptions.

Aug 2020

Aug 1 2020  (Science of The Total Environment)

COVID-19: Disease, management, treatment, and social impact

Imran Ali, Omar M.L.Alharbi

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720323780

This short article sets out to describe the SARS-CoV-2, disease, prevention and management, treatment and social impact on society. The authors optimistically suggest that their article may be useful to create awareness among the public, to prevent, manage and treat COVID-19.

They admit there is no precise treatment for coronavirus but prevention, management and supporting healthcare may provide relief in the outbreak of COVID-19. However, some approaches have been or may be used to control the disease. These approaches may be categorized in Allopathic, Unani and Homeopathic treatments. But before all this treatment, plenty of testing facilities should be available to the health care sectors.

July 2020

July 2020  (International Review of Financial Analysis) 

COVID-19 pandemic, oil prices, stock market, geopolitical risk and policy uncertainty nexus in the US economy: Fresh evidence from the wavelet-based approach

ArshianSharif, ChakerAloui, Larisa Yarovaya et al

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105752192030140X

The authors examine the relationship between two serious shocks affecting the US economy: the spread of the novel COVID-19 pandemic and the recent oil price slump. The y conclude the combination of these two problems will likely initiate a long-term economic downturn and drive the US economy into the next recession. The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak is causing unprecedented effects on the US stock markets’ volatility whose levels rival or exceed those observed during October 1987, December 2008 and during the 1929 crash.

June 2020

June 2020  (Patient Education and Counseling)

Implications of the current COVID-19 pandemic for communication in healthcare

Sara Rubinelli, Kara Myers, Marcy Rosenbaum et al

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0738399120302305

The authors are senior representatives of EACH: the International Association for Communication in Healthcare, and ACH: the Academy of Communication in Healthcare. They briefly identify many, though not all, of the areas of communication in healthcare that are important and emphasize the need to address the changing interactions with patients and families; between teachers and learners; between the media and the public and within healthcare teams. 

They state that much work is needed specifically to address Covid19 related health disparities worldwide and that one major aspect to consider is the negative impact of misinformation. They make a plea for a comprehensive understanding of what is happening currently as well as its future implications, with the expectation that new findings may equip healthcare practice and education with strategies and tools to best respond

June 12, 2020 (JAMA)

Health Care Policy After the COVID-19 Pandemic

Victor R. Fuchs

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.10777

This Viewpoint discusses the necessity and prospects for health care reform in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reviewing policy options to fund universal coverage, incentivize efficiencies, and reduce political opposition to change.

 

June 12, 2020 (JAMA)

COVID-19 Pandemic, Unemployment, and Civil Unrest: Underlying Deep Racial and Socioeconomic Divides

Sandro Galea, Salma M. Abdalla

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.11132

This Viewpoint discusses the inequalities underlying the preferential spread of COVID-19 and of economic hardship in lower-income communities of color in the USA. It sees the national protests in support of the Black Lives Matter movement as a natural consequence of those inequities and an opportunity to change the systems that create them.

 

 

June 10, 2020 (JAMA)

Sustaining Rural Hospitals After COVID-19: The Case for Global Budgets

Jonathan E. Fried, David T. Liebers, Eric T. Roberts

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.9744

This Viewpoint proposes that global budgets, or fixed payments for care of a population over a specific time, are well suited to address the financial instability wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic on rural hospitals. It proposes removing the link between volume and revenue to allow them to adapt to community needs.

 

June 2020  (International Journal of Surgery)

The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review

MariaNicola, Zaid Alsafi, Catrin Sohrabi

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1743919120303162

In this review, the authors summarise the socio-economic effects of COVID-19 on individual aspects of the world economy. Central banks globally commit to a ‘Whatever it takes’ approach in an attempt to save the global economy. As an example, Europe pledges a €1.7tn rescue package.

The road to economic recovery is predicted to be a long one, with a period of economic inactivity for many years to come.

 

June 5 2020  (European Heart Journal)

COVID-19 and the healthcare workers

Ankur Kalra, Erin D Michos, Kavitha M Chinnaiyan

https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa489/5851729

“It was a war unlike any other. Family members picked sides; treasured cousins, childhood playmates, beloved uncles and grandfathers, and revered teachers faced off on the battlefield, preparing to slaughter each other. It was, after all, a war that would decide ‘dharma’—the inherent order of reality that is nurtured by right thought and action.”  Read on to find out how our health systems and workers can learn some lessons from this war.

 

June 2020  (International Journal of Surgery)

The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review

Maria Nicola, Zaid Alsafi, Catrin Sohrabi et al

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1743919120303162

The authors research and sunmarise the social-economic impact on the individual aspects of the world economy.They focus on three sectors: Primary (agriculture, petrolrum and oil); secondary (manufacturing industry); tertiary (education, finance, healthcare, pharmaceutical, travel, tourism, aviation, sports, food, IT). They then highlight the social impacts. The authors conclude with some recommendations. Overall a very good review that provides insights into the social-economic impacts of Covid-19.

May 2020

May 29, 2020 (Science)

Ethics and governance for digital disease surveillance

Michelle M. Mello, C. Jason Wang

https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb9045

In this article, the authors explore ethical concerns raised by digital technologies and new data sources in public health surveillance during epidemics, focusing on core public health functions of case detection, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine.

May 28 2020  (Journal of Public Policy and Marketing)

The Pandemic Ripple Effect: Understanding Marketing and Public Policy Opportunities in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Matthew E. Sarkees, M. Paula Fitzgerald, Cait Lamberton

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0743915620930693

The COVID-19 pandemic placed a heavy price on the trillion-dollar global pharmaceutical industry. The urgency of COVID-19 forced government regulators to speed up the race for effective treatments and care.

The authors  highlight three of the knowledge  gaps: (1) confusion arising from off-label prescribing and emergency use authorization, (2) consumer access to testing, and (3) pharmaceutical supply chain issues.

May 22, 2020   (Science) 

Ethics of controlled human infection to address COVID-19

Seema K. Shah, Franklin G. Miller, Thomas C. Darton et al

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6493/832.full

This article addresses some of the ethical considerations associated with controlled human infection studies (CHIs) for vaccine development for severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).  The authors refer to “a comprehensive, state-of-the-art ethical framework for CHIs “ they have been developing that emphasizes their social value as fundamental to justifying these studies. They argue  ethics of CHIs in general are underexplored and ethical examinations of SARS-CoV-2 CHIs have largely focused on whether the risks are acceptable and participants could give valid informed consent. The authors agree on the ethical conditions for conducting SARS-CoV-2 CHIs but differ on whether the social value of such CHIs is sufficient to justify the risks at present. The articles provides ethical guidance for research sponsors, communities, participants, and the essential independent reviewers considering SARS-CoV-2 CHIs. The approach doeas not appear to address the unique time pressures presented by the COVID-19 pandemic but rather argue their framework and analysis support “laying the groundwork for CHIs”. This would involve several steps including “a challenge strain, drafting consensus protocols that address ethical concerns, and engaging stakeholders to enhance their social value, minimize risks, and build public trust”.

 

May 15, 2020 Science Vol. 368, Issue 6492, pp. 716-718

Policy opportunities to enhance sharing for pandemic research

Michelle Rourke, Mark Eccleston-Turner, Alexandra Phelan4 e al

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6492/716.full

The authors point out that despite the scale of the pandemic threat, the lack of a clear legal obligation to share pathogens or associated data on genetic sequencing during a health emergency represents a blind spot in international law and governance, impeding pandemic response and scientific progress. Th paper examines the sharing of public health information, biological samples, and genetic sequencing data (GSD ) in the still early days of the COVID-19 pandemic.  The authors identify barriers to sharing under the current international legal system, and propose legal and policy reforms needed to enhance international scientific cooperation.

May 12, 2020  American Journal of Health Promotion

Social Capital in the Response to COVID-19

Nicholas Pitas , Colin Ehmer

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0890117120924531

Drawing on evidence from past crises, the authors recommend individuals, communities, and government institutions work to strengthen and expand social networks in order to overcome deficiencies or disruptions in social capital brought about by physical distancing under Covid-19.

 

 May 12 2020    Business Horizons

The COVID-19 Virtual Idea Blitz: Marshaling social entrepreneurship to rapidly respond to urgent grand challenges

Sophie Bacq, Will Geoghegan, Matthew Josefy et al

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007681320300690

The authors describe a virtual on line event that was organized and executed in less than a week and ultimately involved 200 entrepreneurs, coders, medical doctors, venture capitalists, industry professionals, students, and professors from around the world. 21 ideas were developed in five thematic areas: health needs, education, small businesses, community, and purchasing. The paper describes the organisational approach and the key learning of “this spontaneous entrepreneurial endeavour”.

 

 

May 12 2020    Psychiatry Research

Psychological Outcomes Associated with Stay-at-Home Orders and the Perceived Impact of COVID-19 on Daily Life

Matthew T.Tull, Keith Edmonds,  Kayla  Scamaldo et al

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165178120310854

This study examined relations of both stay-at-home orders and the perceived impact of COVID-19 on daily life to psychological outcomes (depression, health anxiety, financial worry, social support, and loneliness) in a nationwide U.S. community adult sample questionnaire survey.  Being under a stay-at-home order was associated with greater health anxiety, financial worry, and loneliness. The perceived impact of COVID-19 on daily life was positively associated with health anxiety, financial worry, and social support, but negatively associated with loneliness. The authors highlight the importance of social connection to mitigate the negative psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

 

May 11, 2020 Personality and Individual Differences

The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S)

Ibrahim Arpaci, Kasım Karataş, Mustafa Baloğlu

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188692030297X#!

The authors agrue that negative effects of Covid-19 are not limited to psycho-pathological problems with serious physiological, social, and economical difficulties observed in various counties. They suggest a new type of specific phobia associated with Covid-19 is identifiable and is worthy of further research.

May 10, 2020 (Journal of Management)

Corona Crisis and Inequality: Why Management Research Needs a Societal Turn

Bapuji H, Patel C, Ertug G

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0149206320925881

This wide ranging essay employs the COVID1-19 pandemic as a context and opportuity examine how it affects issues of social inequality. The authors emphasize the need to take a societal turn and research the effect of organizational practices on societal economic inequality. They argue that this societal turn is equally applicable to management research in general, because the pandemic has exposed the neglected and sometimes hidden interdependence between business and society. 

 

May 10, 2020 (ECNU Review of Education)

Higher Education Development and Student Mobility During Crises: From a Comparative and Historical Perspective

Hantian Wu

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2096531120923662

In this short essay the author cautions against drawing upon past historical crises to predict outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic in the field of Higher Education. Long-term factors that have driven the rapid increase in the number of Chinese students studying abroad are thought to be unlikely to change in a short period of time due to the sudden crisis. Middle-class families will still be willing to invest in their children’s education abroad. China’s status as a receiving country will not be fundamentally changed by either unexpected crises or short-term incentive policies for similar reasons.

 

May 10, 2020 (Health Education & Behavior)

Social Distancing and Incarceration: Policy and Management Strategies to Reduce COVID-19 Transmission and Promote Health Equity Through Decarceration

BH Henry

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1090198120927318

The author argues that prisons are epicenters for COVID-19 transmission, including to the community. Given the high rates of preexisting health conditions, limited access to quality health care, and inability to social distance, it is impossible to reduce the impact of COVID-19 in prisons. It is argued that rapid decarceration (release of prisoners from prison) is needed to control the impact of COVID-19 and to promote health equity (between those incarcerated and those who are not).

May 7, 2020 (Industrial Marketing Management)

The Coronavirus crisis in B2B settings: Crisis uniqueness and managerial implications based on social exchange theory

Roberto Mora, Corteza Wesley, J.Johnstonb

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019850120303394?via%3Dihub

The authors examine differences in response of business-to-business (B2B) organisations to the Covid-19 crisis. A study of 11 businesses in USA, Latin America and Europe identifies four key areas of recovery where 22 practices in the form of recommendations for B2B businesses managers. These include actions such as: implementing digital showrooms for customers; training customers on e-commerce; using social media to disseminate general information or events; using webinars; decentralizing decision-making power (temporariliy); driving morale enhancement; revisiting the marketing budget; regulating tiredness and lack of choice; and reducing distractions and family tension.

May 6, 2020 (J of Health Psychology)

Human needs in COVID-19 isolation

Thiago Matias, Fabio H Dominski, David F Marks

https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105320925149

As social distancing and stay-at-home advice is constantly advocated during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to remember that a significant proportion of the population who live alone are vulnerable to mental health problems. Here, the authors discuss one of the most fundamental tools of self-care for health enhancement: increased physical activity.

May 3, 2020  (Annals of Tourism Research)

Towards a post-conflict tourism recovery framework

Maharaj  Vijay Reddy,  Stephen,  W.Boyd,  Mirela Nica

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160738320300840

Although not specifically considering the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic and its effect upon the tourist industry, this extensive review nevertheless offers some valuable insights into routes to recovery for the tourist industry following major crises. In particular, the authors argue that policy makers need to explore different strategies of response that may involve crisis communication to facilitate repositioning, as well as evaluating tourist reactions on how successful they see those recovery strategies to be.  Importantly they conclude that local communities and their voices need better understanding. Funded in part by British Council and the University Grants Commission of India for their financial support under the umbrella of the UK-India Education and Research Initiative(UKIERI).

 

 

May 1, 2020 Journal of Anxiety Disorder

Anxiety Regarding Contracting COVID-19 Related to Interoceptive Anxiety Sensations: The Moderating Role of Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity

Dean McKay, Haibo Yang, Jon Elhai. Gordon Asmundson

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887618520300475

A total of 908 Chinese adults (mean age = 40.37 years, SD = 9.27; n = 752 female) participated in a survey distributed between February 24 and March 15, 2020. Results support a moderating relationship between both disgust propensity and sensitivity in the relationship between physical concerns associated with anxiety sensitivity and fear of contracting COVID-19. The authors argue the results lend support for individual variation in the activation of the Behavioral Immune System (BIS) which contributes to pandemics anxiety. Recommendations for public education to target individuals who may experience mental health consequences from pandemics are provided.

May 1, 2020 (Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives)

COVID-19 and airline employment: Insights from historical uncertainty shocks to the industry

Joseph B.Sobieralski

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590198220300348

The authors argue that the global nature and severity of the shock of COVID-19 upon the airline industry may be near the upper bound of estimates with a reduction of over 13% of the airline workforce. The analysis uses the vector autoregression (VAR) model to examine the uncertainty shocks and their relation to economic variables.

Their analysis purports to show that the low-cost and regional airlines' business models afford these airlines the ability to weather uncertain times without the large employment reductions seen by the major carriers. Howvever “regional” is not defined nor is the potential for major differemces in “regions” around the globe examined.

Another important finding of this study is that certain categories of employees will face deeper workforce cuts than others. The occupations related to passenger handling at major airlines are hardest hit. The lower skilled employees at airlines appear to receive the majority of the impact from workforce reductions. Some policy implications are examined.

April 2020

April 25, 2020  (Journal of Accounting and Public Policy)

Estimating the COVID-19 cash crunch: Global evidence and policy

AntonioDe Vito,  Juan-PedroGómez

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278425420300144

The authors from Spain investigate how the COVID-19 health crisis could affect the liquidity of listed firms across 26 countries. They stress-test three liquidity ratios for each firm with full and partial operating flexibility in two scenarios corresponding to drops in sales of 50% and 75%, respectively. In the most adverse scenario, the average firm with partial operating flexibility would exhaust its cash holdings in two years when its current liabilities would increase, on average, by eight times. The authors  suggest that the average firm would have to resort to the debt market to prevent a liquidity crunch. Approximately 1/10th of all sample firms would become illiquid within six months.

Regarding two different fiscal policies, tax deferrals and bridge loans, that governments could implement to mitigate the liquidity risk, the analysis suggests bridge loans are more cost-effective “to prevent a massive cash crunch”.

 

April 22, 2020 (Science of The Total Environment)

COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention

Indranil Chakraborty, Prasenjit Maity

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138882

The authors provide a general summary of the global human health and economic impact of Covid-19 to 18 April 2020 largely drawing upon WHO and OECD data. They argue that one of the consequences of the pandemic has been the successful recovery of the environment “that should definitely set [a] positive impact on global climate change”. They conclude that “Whatever be [sic] the cause or origin, the occurrence of COVID-19 has emphasized [the need] to improve the mutually-affective connection between humans and nature”.

 

April 21, 2020 (The Lancet Psychiatry)

Suicide risk and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic

David Gunnell,  LouisAppleby, Ella Arensman, et al

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2215036620301711

This is an important Comment in the Lancet by members of the International COVID-19 Suicide Prevention Research Collaboration.

They state that the Covid-19 pandemic will cause distress and leave many people vulnerable to mental health problems and suicidal behaviour. Mental health consequences are likely to be present for longer and peak later than the actual pandemic itslef. However, the authors comment that research evidence and the experience of national strategies provide a strong basis for suicide prevention. A series of actions are highlighted that the authors state need to be backed by vigilance and international collaboration. The views and recommendations are endorsed by the International Association of Suicide Prevention, the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, and the International Academy of Suicide Research

 

April 21, 2020 Royal Society of Medicine

Preparing for COVID-19’s aftermath: simple steps to address social determinants of health

Anant Jani

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0141076820921655

 A very short essay suggesting to take simple steps in areas we can control to optimise spend of limited resources for efficient recovery from COVID-19.

April 16, 2020 (PLOS ONE)

Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak

Junling Gao, Pinpin Zheng, Yingnan Jia, et al

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924

This large cross-sectional on-line survey of Chinese citizens during the COVID-19 outbreak found a high prevalence of mental health problems positively associated with frequent Social Media Exposure (SME). The authors suggest that disinformation and false reports about the virus bombarded social media and stoked unfounded fears among many “netizens” (citizens using the internet). They argue that this exposure may confuse people and harm their mental health with many also expressing negative feelings, such as fear, worry, nervous, anxiety on social media…”which are contagious social network” (sic).

April 16, 2020 (Death Studies)

Coronavirus anxiety scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety

Sherman Lee

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07481187.2020.1748481

The author posits a Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), which is a brief mental health screener to identify probable cases of dysfunctional anxiety associated with the COVID-19 crisis. This 5-item scale, which was based on an online survey of 775 adults with anxiety over the coronavirus, demonstrated solid reliability and validity.  Elevated CAS scores were found to be associated with coronavirus diagnosis, impairment, alcohol/drug coping, negative religious coping, extreme hopelessness, suicidal ideation, as well as attitudes toward President Trump and towards Chinese products. 

 

April 15, 2020 (International Sociology)

COVID-19 infodemic: More retweets for science-based information on coronavirus than for false information

Cristina M Pulido, Beatriz Villarejo-Carballido, Gisela Redondo-Sama,  et al

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0268580920914755

This study aims at shedding new light on social media during an “infodemic” by analysing the type of tweets that circulated on Twitter around the COVID-19 outbreak for two days.  In order to understand how false and true information was shared, 1000 tweets are analyzed. Results show that false information is tweeted more, but retweeted less, than science-based evidence or fact-checking tweets. Science-based evidence and fact-checking tweets capture more engagement than mere facts themselves.

April 10, 2020  JAMA. 2020;323(18):1758-1759

King Lear Under COVID-19 Lockdown

Anoushka Sinha

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2764654

Shakespeare inspired reflections of a pediatrics intern training in New York City on the Covid-19 pandemic. Reflecting on the tragdy of King Lear (rather than other works such as the Comedy of Errors).

April 10, 2020 (Journal of Air Transport Management)

Identification of critical airports for controlling global infectious disease outbreaks: Stress-tests focusing in Europe

Paraskevas Nikolaou, Loukas Dimitriou

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969699720300454

The objective of this extensive and detailed paper was to highlight possible disease spreading in the European region and to advocate the enhancement of Europe's control measures in order to prevent a disease spreading inside the region. A detailed epidemiological model is integrated with airlines’ and land transport network, to simulate the epidemic spread of infectious diseases originated from distant locations.

The results provide convincing evidence on the effectiveness that the European airports' system offer in controlling the emergence of epidemics, but also on the time and extent that controlling measures should be taken in order to break the chain of infections in realistic cases.

In a scenario examining a disease outbreak starting from Asia, the study highlights the importance of the time in closure/control measures applied in large regions, since few days of delay may result in wide spread of viruses in the general population of a region. 

April 10, 2020  

Is the spread of COVID-19 across countries influenced by environmental, economic and social factors?

Hossain, M. A.

https://t.co/2H7158XiMl

Why some countries and regions are more affected than some other countries and regions? The author employs simple statistical methods to investigate any relationship between the severity of the disease and the environmental, economic and social parameters. The preliminary results indicate that the number of confirmed cases of Covid-19 infection is higher in countries with lower yearly average temperatures, higher economic openness, and stronger political democracy.

April 9, 2020 (N Engl J Med)

Covid-19 — The Law and Limits of Quarantine

Wendy E. Parmet and Michael S. Sinha

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2004211

This short “Perspective” article addresses some of the legislative challenges presented by the need for public health intervention to restrict the outbreak of COVID-19 in the USA.

April 6, 2020 (Lancet Child Adolesc Health)

School Closure and Management Practices During Coronavirus Outbreaks Including COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review

Russell M Viner, Simon J Russell, Helen Croker, et al

https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanchi/PIIS2352-4642(20)30095-X.pdf

The authors searched three electronic databases to identify what is known about the effectiveness of school closures and other school social distancing practices during coronavirus outbreaks. They included 16 of 616 identified articles. School closures were deployed rapidly across mainland China and Hong Kong for COVID-19. However, the search identified no data on the relative contribution of school closures to transmission control. The authors conclude that “when considering school closures for COVID-19… combinations of social distancing measures should be considered. Other less disruptive social distancing interventions in schools require further consideration if restrictive social distancing policies are implemented for long periods”.

April  2020 (Progress in Disaster Science)

Governance, technology and citizen behavior in pandemic: Lessons from COVID-19 in East Asia

Rajib Shaw,  Yong-kyunKim, Jinling Hua

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590061720300272

This paper analyses responses in China, Japan and South Korea to the Covid-19 pandemic form the perspective of governance, and provides some commonalities and lessons. While the countries follow different mechanisms of governance, it was found that certain decisions in respective countries made a difference, along with strong community solidarity and community behavior. The authors highlight extensive use of emerging technologies along with medical/health care treatment to make the responses more effective and reduce the risk of the spread of the disease.

March 2020

March 31, 2020 

The propagation of the economic impact through supply chains: The case of a mega-city lockdown against the spread of COVID-19

https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.14002

This study quantifies the economic effect of a possible lockdown of Tokyo to prevent spread of COVID-19

March 30, 2020 (Anaesthesia)

A. K. M. Chan, C. P. Nickson, J. W. Rudolph, A. Lee G. M. Joynt

Social media for rapid knowledge dissemination: early experience from the COVID‐19 pandemic. Anaesthesia

https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.15057

In this Editorial the authors argue that well‐designed free open access educational material should distil key information in a clear, actionable format, while paired with social media–powered dissemination using social networks, in addition to traditional communication methods. Utilising social media in this way has shown promise as a speedier alternative. The use of the principles of the Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM) networks further provide good examples of the effectiveness of making information freely available. Acknowledging the limitations of social media, the authors propose criteria to be implemented by users of professional social medial platforms to promote the responsible use of social media–disseminated information.

 

March 25, 2020 (Lancet)

Parenting in a time of COVID-19

Lucie Cluver, Jamie M Lachman, Lorraine Sherr, Inge Wessels, Etienne Krug, Sabine Rakotomalala, Stephen Blight, Susan Hillis, Gretchen Bachman, Ohad Green, Alex Butchart, Mark Tomlinson, Catherine L Ward, Jennifer Doubt, and Kerida McDonald

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146667/

The authors describe how several national and international organsisations are collaborating to provide open access online parenting resources during COVID-19. These resources focus on concrete tips to build positive relationships, divert and manage bad behaviour, and manage parenting stress. They are shared through social media.

 

Mar 25, 2020 (CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP14511)

Stefano Ramelli and Alexander F. Wagner.nFeverish Stock Price Reactions to COVID-19

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3560319

This paper studies how markets adjust to the sudden emergence of previously neglected risks. It analyzed the stock price effects of the 2019 novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The authors also discusses a possible economic crisi scenario.  If you want to find out which sectors are most adversely affected, read on.

March 24, 2020 (Nature Human Behavior)

Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response

Van Bavel, J. J., et al.

https://psyarxiv.com/y38m9/

The Authors argue that because the COVID-19 pandemic crisis requires large-scale behaviour change and places significant psychological burdens on individuals, insights from the social and behavioural sciences can be used to help align human behavior with the recommendations of epidemiologists and public health experts. The authors discuss evidence from a selection of research topics relevant to pandemics, including work on navigating threats, social and cultural influences on behaviour, science communication, moral decision-making, leadership, and stress and coping. They note the nature and quality of prior research, including uncertainty and issues not settled. They identify several insights for effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and also highlight important gaps researchers should move quickly to fill in the coming weeks and months.

 

March 23, 2020 (Lancet Infect Dis)

Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19

Joseph A Lewnarda and  Nathan C Lob

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118670/

The authors argue that the effectiveness and societal impact of quarantine and social distancing will depend on the credibility of public health authorities, political leaders, and institutions. It is important that policy makers maintain the public's trust through use of evidence-based interventions and fully transparent, fact-based communication.

 

 

March 22, 2020 (SSRN)

Economic Effects of Coronavirus Outbreak (COVID-19) on the World Economy

Fernandes, Nuno

https://ssrn.com/abstract=3557504

This report discusses the economic impact of the Coronavirus/COVID-19 crisis across industries, and countries. It also provides estimates of the potential global economic costs of COVID-19, and the GDP growth of different countries. The current draft includes estimates for 30 countries, under different scenarios. The report also shows the economic effects of outbreak are currently being underestimated, due to over-reliance on historical comparisons with SARS, or the 2008/2009 financial crisis.

March 13, 2020 (J. Risk Financial Manag)

Suspending Classes Without Stopping Learning: China’s Education Emergency Management Policy in the COVID-19 Outbreak

Wunong Zhang, Yuxin Wang, Lili Yang, and Chuanyi Wang

https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13030055

(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19’s Risk Management and Its Impact on the Economy)

The authors discuss an emergency policy initiative called “Suspending Classes Without Stopping Learning” that was launched by the Chinese government to continue teaching activities as schools across the country were closed to contain the Covid-19 virus. The authors report ambiguity and disagreement about what to teach, how to teach, the workload of teachers and students, the teaching environment, and the implications for education equity. The authors describe some of the difficulties and outline some possible solutions.

 

March 12,  2020 (Social Health and Behavior) 

Social reaction toward the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)

Lin CY

http://www.shbonweb.com/text.asp?2020/3/1/1/280554

In this editorial the author advocates there is a need to design an effective antistigma program that breaks the misperception in COVID-19, increases public's knowledge in COVID-19, and spreads encouraging positive and supportive messages. Such a program can be designed with the use of social media, given the high access rate in social media to combat misinformation, stigma and fear.

March 10, 2020 

The COVID-19 Social Media Infodemic

https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.05004

The authors present the diffusion of information about the COVID-19 with a massive data analysis on Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Reddit and Gab

March, 2020 (The Medical Journal of Australia)

Pre-emptive low cost social distancing and enhanced hygiene implemented before local COVID-19 transmission could decrease the number and severity of cases

https://www.mja.com.au/system/files/2020-03/FINAL%20Dalton%20preprint%20mja20.00300.pdf

A pre-emptive phase would  assist government, workplaces, schools and businesses to prepare for a more stringent phase. Low cost enhanced hygiene and social distancing measures should be considered.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

©2020 by Covid-19 Bibliometrics